Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acids
Anionic surfactants have a negatively charged hydrophilic part of the molecule. This is the reason for their good cleaning properties. The micelles formed repel each other because of the electric charge and the negatively charged surfaces of the object to be cleaned. This prevents the emulsified dirt from flowing together and prevents it from being redeposited on the cleaned surface. They are well suited for removing dirt particles. In general, anionic surfactants are highly foaming and water-soluble.
Depending on the structural structure of the lipophilic part of the molecule, these surfactants may be more or less sensitive to water hardness and may form difficult to insoluble complexes with positively charged calcium or magnesium ions. A similar effect can occur in combination with cationic surfactants and should therefore be avoided.